Castelli della Valdichiana

From the 1300’s Castello di Gargonza was a fortified village in the hands of the “Ghibellini” and from 1444 it became for 300 years an agricultural community dedicated to the forest and “governed” by sage civic status. Then at the end of 1700 it became a farm.The earliest records of Gargonza as a fortified village of the Val di Chiana date back to a 1150: a quotation that mentioned a fortified castle along the road from Arezzo to Siena: which is the same castle where Dante spent a few days in exile. Sought after by Guelfi and Ghibellini, during the XV century the Castle of Gargonza was known as the village which dedicated itself to cultivating the woods as well as wool production

Cortona

Originally an Umbrian city, it was conquered and enlarged by the Etruscans, who called it Curtun. During the 600s BC, it joined the Etruscan League. Cortona eventually became a Roman colony under the name Corito. The origin-legends and ancient names of Cortona are described by George Dennis.[2] In the final stages of the Gothic War (535–554), Cortona was sacked and destroyed. Cortona became a Ghibellinian city state in the 13th century, with its own currency. From 1325 to 1409 the Ranieri-Casali family successfully ruled the town. After being conquered by Ladislaus of Naples in 1409, Cortona was sold to the Medici in 1411. In 1737, the senior branch of the Medici line went extinct and Cortona came under the authority of the House of Lorraine. Following the Italian Wars of Independence, Tuscany—Cortona included—became part of the Kingdom of Italy.

Assisi

Assisi was the birthplace of St. Francis, who founded the Franciscan religious order in the town in 1208, and St. Clare (Chiara d\'Offreducci), the founder of the Poor Sisters, which later became the Order of Poor Clares after her death.

Montecchio Vesponi

The first dwellings in Montecchio hill dates back to etrush-roman era, a pagan sactuary might have been built there. Around 9th century the castle was built, part of the fee of Marchiones family and related to Farneta abbey. Other related feudals where the Orselli and Panzoni of Cortona or the Da Vitiano. At the beginning of 13th century became allied of the municipality of Arezzo with the castles of Mammi and Monticello. Around 1234 it was bought by the municipality of Arezzo which settled there more people, made it a municipality under its influence and a stronghold against Castiglion Fiorentino and Cortona. On 1281 Arezzo enlarged the castle walls completing the fortress which is visible today, making it is similar to Montecolognola and Monteriggioni, and settled families on the interior. On 1289 after the defeat suffered by Arezzo in the battle of Campaldino it passed to Florence. It switched back to Arezzo on 1303 and at the beginning of the 14th century was a stronghold against Perugia. Around 1383, Arezzo military being weak and without control of its territory, the castle was occupied by John Hawkwood, known in Italy as \"Giovanni Acuto\", which settled there. Upon his death (1394) Montecchio become again property of the municipality of Florence and was used by florentine administrators. It was mede part of Castiglion Fiorentino municipality in 1774 with administrative reform of Leopold II, Duch of Tuscany.

Monte San Savino

Monte San Savino - Monte San Savino was an Etruscan town. It was fortified in Roman times around a castle called Area alta. In the 13th century it was a possession of the Ubertini, lords of Arezzo, but in 1325, because it sided with the Guelphs supported by Florence, the Ghibelline bishop of Arezzo, Guido Tarlati, had the castle walls knocked down. In 1337 the town became a dominion of Perugia, then it belonged to Siena and finally to Florence in 1384. In 1550 Duke Cosimo de\' Medici granted Monte San Savino as a personal fief to Baldovino del Monte, brother of Pope Julius III. Successively, the fief of Monte San Savino was ruled by the Orsini marquises (until 1640), Mattias de Medici (until 1667) and Vittoria della Rovere (until 1694). In 1748 the town was finally restored to grand-ducal dominion. By decree of the President of the Republic (22 July 1991) Monte San Savino was granted the title of city. Of the famous people born here, we draw your attention to the members of the Monte family: Cardinal Antonio, Giovanni Maria who became Pope Julius III and Pietro, a grand master of the order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.

Arezzo

Described by Livy as one of the Capitae Etruriae (Etruscan capitals), Arezzo (Aritim in Etruscan) is believed to have been one of the twelve most important Etruscan cities—the so-called Dodecapolis, part of the Etruscan League. Etruscan remains establish that the acropolis of San Cornelio, a small hill next to that of San Donatus, was occupied and fortified in the Etruscan period. There is other significant Etruscan evidence: parts of walls, an Etruscan necropolis on Poggio del Sole (still named \"Hill of the Sun\"), and most famously, the two bronzes, the \"Chimera of Arezzo\" (5th century BC) and the \"Minerva\" (4th century BC) which were discovered in the 16th century and taken to Florence. Increasing trade connections with Greece also brought some elite goods to the Etruscan nobles of Arezzo: the krater painted by Euphronios ca 510 BC with a battle against Amazons (in the Museo Civico, Arezzo 1465) is unsurpassed.